India’s Project 75 SSKs: Too Late to Save the Submarine Force?


click for video

September 23/19: Delivery India’s Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL) has delivered another license-built Kalvari or Scorpène Class diesel-electric submarine to the Indian Navy. The vessel, which will be in service as INS Khanderi once commissioned, was handed over on September 19 at a delivery ceremony in Mumbai. Khanderi is the second of six boats ordered under an $3.2 billion contract signed with Naval Group (then known as DCNS) in October 2005 under India’s Project 75 submarine program. The program’s first-of-class, INS Kalvari , was commissioned in December 2017.

For more on this and other stories, please consider purchasing a membership.
If you are already a subscriber, login to your account.
Scorpene cutaway (click to view full) India’s submarine fleet currently consists of 16 boats: 10 Russian SSK Kilo (Sindhugosh) Class, 4 locally built SSK U209 (Shishumar) Class, a leased nuclear-powered Improved Akula Class SSN from Russia (INS Chakra), and its own INS Arihant SSBN. Most of the Kilos have been modernized, but readiness rates for India’s existing submarine fleet sits below 40%, and the U209s will have trouble lasting much beyond 2015. With Pakistan acquiring modern submarines, and Chinese submarine building exploding, expanding India’s submarine fleet became an obvious national priority. In 2005, India confirmed that it would buy 6 Franco-Spanish Scorpene diesel submarines, with an option for 6 more and extensive technology transfer agreements. Unfortunately, 7 years after that deal was signed, “Project 75” has yet to field a single submarine. A poor Indian procurement approach, and state-run inefficiency, are pushing the country’s entire submarine force toward an aging crisis. This DID FOCUS article covers the Scorpene deal and its structure, adds key contracts and new developments, and offers insights into the larger naval picture within and beyond India. The Scorpene Class [youtube:v=OugghHerWcE] Scorpene click for video The SSK Scorpene Class diesel-electric fast attack submarine was jointly developed by […]

One Source: Hundreds of programs; Thousands of links, photos, and analyses

DII brings a complete collection of articles with original reporting and research, and expert analyses of events to your desktop – no need for multiple modules, or complex subscriptions. All supporting documents, links, & appendices accompany each article.


  • Save time
  • Eliminate your blind spots
  • Get the big picture, quickly
  • Keep up with the important facts
  • Stay on top of your projects or your competitors


  • Coverage of procurement and doctrine issues
  • Timeline of past and future program events
  • Comprehensive links to other useful resources