Team Torpedo: US Firms Sell & Support MK48s and MK54sOct 18, 2012 15:20 UTC by Defense Industry Daily staff
The Mk-48 is the standard heavyweight torpedo used by the US military, and is mounted primarily on submarines. Surface ships use the smaller Mk46 or Mk50. The Mk-54, in contrast, stemmed from the need for a smaller, lighter, and cost effective advanced torpedo – one that could be dropped from helicopters, planes, and smaller ships. In recent years, the US has moved to modernize and maintain its Mk-48 inventory; the Mk-54 also requires servicing and spares.
Many of these contracts were issued under a total enterprise partnership between Raytheon and the US Navy called Team Torpedo, dedicated to meeting the needs of U.S. and allied naval fleets. Team Torpedo combines Raytheon’s manufacturing, design engineering, and support services expertise with the systems engineering and testing capabilities of Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) operations in Newport, RI, and Keyport, WA. Now, a new provider has entered the picture. DID has the complete set of contracts below… plus more details regarding the torpedoes involved, and the answer to the question “what the heck is CBASS standard”?
Heavyweight & Flyweight: Mk-48 ADCAP and Mk-54
The Mk-48 is a huge 533mm torpedo (19 feet long, 3,500+ pounds) with advanced homing, wire guidance capabilities, and devastating consequences when its 300kg warhead hits a target. It is designed to kill both fast, deep-diving nuclear submarines and high performance surface ships, and is carried by US Navy and Royal Australian Navy submarines. The Mk 48 ADCAP has improved target acquisition range, reduced vulnerability to enemy countermeasures, reduced shipboard constraints such as warm-up and reactivation time, and enhanced effectiveness against surface ships. These torpedoes can operate with or without wire guidance, and can use active and/or passive homing, conducting multiple re-attacks if they miss the target. Cost estimates for this weapon are around $2 million each, rising to almost $3 million in some cases with upgrades factored in.
The Common Broadband Advanced Sonar System (CBASS) kit is for the Mk48, and includes a Broadband Sonar Analog Receiver, preamplifier and interfacing hardware. This gives the retrofitted torpedoes the ability to transmit and receive over a wide frequency band, and takes advantage of broadband signal processing techniques to improve their targeting & tracking capabilities. This is especially helpful in shallower waters, where the bottom and other clutter is more likely to be in the way. CBASS kits procured before the end of FY 2007 were for Mk-48 ADCAP Mod 5 and below, and so they included the Torpedo Propulsion Upgrade (TPU) modification required for forebody/ afterbody compatibility. After that, the kits are used with Mk-48 ADCAP Mod 6 torpedoes, which don’t require the TPU.
Raytheon also manufactures the AN/BYG-1 combat management system used in new American submarines, and scheduled for retrofit to older Los Angeles class boats and the Royal Australian Navy’s Collins class submarines. This reportedly allows for a degree of synergy that improves the Mk-48 ADCAP torpedo’s effectiveness.
In 2011, however, Lockheed Martin stepped into the picture with a key contract win for CBASS kits.
The Mk-54, on the other hand, stemmed from the need for a smaller, lighter, but cost effective advanced torpedo that could be dropped from helicopters, planes, and smaller ships. To achieve this, it combined the expensive Mk-50′s search and homing system with the propulsion system of the Mk-46 torpedo (the previous NATO/US standard), and added off-the-shelf electronic components. Its size improves its ability to go after targets in shallower littoral regions, but it is designed for both deep water and near-shore or shallow environments. Cost estimates for this weapon are around $1 million each.
The new 737-derived P-8 Poseidon aircraft is spurring the special development of special GPS-guided, high-altitude launch kits for the MK-54. Add-ons like Lockheed Martin’s HAAWC/Longshot and Raytheon’s Fish Hawk will allow torpedo drops from 35,000 feet, instead of the usual ceiling of several hundred feet.
The MU90 Eurotorp is the Mk-54′s primary international competitor, and it has been very successful in the international marketplace.
Team Torpedo Contracts & Key Events
Unless otherwise specified, contracts are awarded under consolidated contract # N00024-04-C-6101 by The Naval Sea Systems Command in Washington, DC, to Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems Keyport in Keyport, WA.
Australia’s Oct 5/10 request involved up to 200 torpedoes, while India’s June 24/11 request involved up to 32 MK54 all-up rounds for its new P-8i sea control planes.
Australia, India, USA
Sept 7/12: +76 CBASS. Lockheed Martin Sippican Inc. in Marion, MA receives $21 million to produce 76 MK48 Mod 7 CBASS functional item replacement kits, and supporting warranty, engineering services, spares and production support material, for the US Navy (58 kits, 79%) and Canada (18 kits, 21%). This modifies a combination fixed-price incentive, firm-fixed-price, cost-plus-fixed-fee cost-only option contract.
The upgrade kits consist of a guidance and control box, broadband analog sonar receiver, preamplifier, cable assemblies, and guidance and control assembly materials. Canada has qualified its trouble-plagued Victoria Class submarines with the MK48 to replace British Spearfish torpedoes, and is busy retrofitting older MK48 torpedoes that were in its stocks to a modern standard. The 18 kits are half of their March 23/11 DSCA request.
Work will be performed in Marion, MA (95%), and Syracuse, NY (5%), and is expected to complete by December 2016. US Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, DC, is the contracting activity (N00024-11-C-6404).
USA, Canada MK-48s
Work will be performed in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and is expected to be complete by April 2013. All contract funds will expire at the end of the fiscal year, on Sept 30/12. This contract was not competitively procured (N00024-12-C-6401).
Oct 13/11: P-8A. P-8A aircraft T-3 successfully launches its first MK 54 torpedo in the Atlantic Test Range, from 500 feet above water. The test verifies safe separation, with further weapon testing to come. US NAVAIR | Raytheon.
Sept 19/11: 100 MK54. Raytheon IDS in Portsmouth, RI receives a $42.6 million fixed-price incentive, firm-fixed price, cost-plus-fixed fee, cost-type contract for 100 MK 54, MOD 0 lightweight torpedoes. The contract includes options that could push its value to $558.4 million over 4 years, as it buys new weapons, test equipment, spares, engineering, and repair services related to upgrades of US Navy lightweight torpedoes.
Work will be performed in Portsmouth, RI (80%), and Keyport, WA (20%), and is expected to completed by October 2015. This contract was competitively procured via Navy Electronic Business Opportunities website, with 4 offers received (N00024-11-C-6410). See also Raytheon release.
Aug 11/11: ASROC. The US Department of the Navy issues FBO.gov presolicitation #N0010411RK105:
“The U.S. Navy intends to place an order for repair and upgrade various components for the ASROC MK54 Missile. The Government does not have drawings or required technical data to repair or upgrade thses [sic] components”
ASROC is a missile, which attaches to a lightweight torpedo (RUM-139B with Mk46 or RUM-139C with Mk54) and allows rapid engagement using a warship’s vertical launch cells. Once it reaches the target area, the torpedo drops into the water without the booster, and tracks normally. While Raytheon is the MK54′s manufacturer, VL-ASROC is a Lockheed Martin product; given the lack of government data, one or both of these contractors must be retained.
June 24/11: The US DSCA announces [PDF] India’s request to buy 32 MK-54 All-Up-Round Lightweight Torpedoes, 3 recoverable exercise torpedoes, 1 training shape, plus containers, spare and repair parts, support and test equipment, publications and technical documentation, personnel training and training equipment, transportation, and other forms of U.S. Government and contractor support. The estimated cost is $86 million, but actual costs will depend on a negotiated contract.
India intends to use the torpedoes on its forthcoming 8 P-8i Neptune maritime patrol aircraft, and the numbers involved mark this as an initial familiarity and training buy. Prime contractors are listed as “Boeing Company in St. Louis, Missouri, and a yet to be identified U.S. torpedo contractor.” Which is odd. Technically, Boeing is the P-8i lead integrator, but the Mk-54 is a Raytheon design. On the other hand, Lockheed Martin offers the GPS-guided, high altitude launch HAAWC/Longshot, consisting of an adapter kit mounted on a Mk-54. If India wants HAAWCs, Lockheed Martin could be listed as the contractor.
There is a possible industrial offset agreement in connection with the proposed sale, and implementation will require an unfinalized number of U.S. Government and contractor representatives in-country visits on a temporary basis for technical reviews, support, and oversight.
India MK-54 request
May 16/11: Taiwan. Taiwan’s military reportedly plans to budget $860 million to purchase new Mk54 and Mk48 torpedoes over the a 10-year period.
$300 million will reportedly be used to buy 600 Mk54 lightweight torpedoes, replacing existing Mk46s. They’re designed to launch for ships, and from aircraft like Taiwan’s incoming P-3C Orion sea control planes.
Another $160 million will be spent on the purchase of 40 Mk48s, replacing the existing German-made SUT heavyweight torpedoes Taiwan acquired with its 2 Hai Lung II (Zvaardis) Class subs built by the Netherlands. Another $400 million would cover 100 Mk48s, if Taiwan finds a way to source and purchase the 4-8 diesel-electric submarines it wants. Focus Taiwan.
March 31/11: Support. Raytheon Full Service Partnering Corp. in Keyport, WA receives a $47 million cost-plus-fixed-fee, indefinite-delivery/ indefinite-quantity contract for engineering services in support of lightweight and heavyweight torpedo systems.
This effort includes combined purchases for the US Navy (82%), and the governments of Canada (8%), Japan (4%), Brazil (4%), and Turkey (2%) under the Foreign Military Sales Program. Work will be performed in Newport, R.I., and is expected to be complete by March 2016; $50,000 will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The contract was competitively procured, with one offer received via the Navy Electronic Commerce Online website by the US Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division in Newport, RI (N66604-11-D-0633).
March 23/11: The US DSCA announces [PDF] Canada’s request for 36 MK-48 Mod 7 Advanced Technology (AT) Torpedo Conversion Kits for their existing MK-48 Mod 4 stocks, plus containers, spare and repair parts, weapon system support & integration, publications and technical documentation, personnel training and training equipment, and other forms of U.S. Government and contractor support.
The estimated cost is $125 million, but the actual price will be finalized once a contract is signed. That may not happy very soon, as a federal election has just been forced by the minority Conservative Party government’s fall over its proposed budget. $3.5 million per torpedo does seem rather high for conversion kits, but it is in line with the Netherlands’ July 29/10 request for the same thing.
Canada intends to use the MK 48 7ATs on their Victoria Class diesel-electric fast attack submarines. No technical issues are expected, as the country already has some torpedoes of this type in stock, has significant experience with the MK 48 Mod 4/4M and MK 46 5A(S)W, and has good infrastructure for maintaining these weapons.
Canada MK-48 MOD7 request
March 4/11: New CBASS supplier. Lockheed Martin Sippican, Inc. in Marion, MA receives a $50.6 million fixed-price incentive, firm-fixed price, cost-plus-fixed fee, cost-type contract for MK48 Mod 7 CBASS functional item replacement (FIR) upgrade kits (guidance & control box, broadband analog sonar receiver, preamplifier, cable assemblies, and guidance and control materials); plus engineering services hours, hardware repair support, test equipment, additional spares and production support material, and warranty options should all options be exercised. This contract includes options which could bring its cumulative value to $235.2 million.
Work will be performed in Marion, MA (99%), and Akron, OH (1%), and is expected to be complete by May 2014. This contract was competitively procured via Navy Electronic Commerce Online website, with 5 offers received by US Naval Sea Systems Command in Washington, DC (N00024-11-C-6404).
USA – new CBASS supplier
Oct 5/10: The US DSCA announces [PDF] Australia’s official request to buy up to 200 MK 54 All-Up-Round Torpedoes, 179 MK 54 Flight in Air Material Kits to mount them onto aircraft, 10 MK 54 Exercise Sections, 10 MK 54 Exercise Fuel Tanks, 10 MK 54 Dummy Torpedoes, 6 MK 54 Ground Handling Torpedoes for safe training, plus support and test equipment to upgrade Intermediate Maintenance Activity to full MK 54 capability, spare and repair parts, technical data and publications, personnel training and training equipment, and other forms of U.S. government and contractor support.
It’s an interesting request, because Australia had picked the Eurotorp MU90 as its lightweight torpedo. The estimated cost is up to $169 million, and the prime contractor will be Raytheon Company Integrated Defense Systems in Keyport, WA.
Australia MK-54 request
FY 2008 – 2010
July 29/10: The US DSCA announces [PDF] The Netherlands’ official request to buy 40 MK-48 Mod 7 Advanced Technology (AT) Torpedo Conversion Kits, 40 containers, plus support and test equipment, spare and repair parts, weapon system support and integration, publications and technical documentation, personnel training and training equipment, and other U.S. Government and contractor support.
The estimated cost is up to $150 million, and the prime contractor will be Raytheon Company Integrated Defense Systems in Keyport, WA.
The Netherlands wants to upgrade its current stock of MK 48 Mod 4 torpedoes to the MK 48 Mod 7AT, for use on its Walrus Class diesel-electric fast attack submarines. Asked about the difference between this upgrade and the USA’s MK 48 ADCAP, a Raytheon representative relied that:
“The Advanced Technology (AT) configuration was developed to provide compatibility to the launching interfaces of international submarine configurations.”
The Netherlands will not require the assignment of any additional U.S. Government or contractor representatives to The Netherlands, though Contractor Engineering and Technical Services (CETS) may be required on an interim basis for installations.
Dutch MK-48 MOD 7 request
Nov 30/09: Sub-contractors. Raytheon IDS issues a $2.6 million contract to electronics contract manufacturer LaBarge Inc. in St. Louis, MO. The firm has ordered wiring harnesses to fit its MK 48 and MK 54 torpedoes. This is the first time LaBarge has supplied parts for the 2 torpedo programs.
LaBarge will make the wiring harnesses at the company’s Berryville, AK plant, and should be finished in December 2011. Raytheon makes torpedoes at the company’s Torpedo and Readiness Center, co-located with the U.S. Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division in Keyport, WA, as well as at the Raytheon Seapower Capability Center in Portsmouth, RI. Interconnection World.
Aug 7/09: +49 MK-54s. A $19.3 million modification to previously awarded contract (N00024-04-C-6101) to provide additional MK 54 torpedoes and support services necessary to support Fleet Operational Requirements for the various torpedo product lines. Work will be performed in Keyport, WA (50%) and Portsmouth, RI (50%), and is expected to be complete by October 2011.
Raytheon’s Sept 9/09 release says that the addition of this order places them under contract to deliver 241 total Mk-54 kits, of which 100 kits will be delivered to the Turkish Navy via a Foreign Military Sales agreement. That raises the total number of MK-54s announced on Oct 9/08 by 49, from 192 to 241.
Jan 8/09: Sub-contractors. Progeny Systems Corporation in Manassas, VA received a $13.5 million indefinite-delivery/ indefinite-quantity, cost plus fixed fee contract for engineering services in support of the MK54 torpedo systems. The contractor will be required to perform engineering efforts including technology assessment, mechanical and electrical component analysis, hardware/software development, critical item testing, hardware/software integration, certification and test, and life cycle logistics studies necessary for the testing and evaluation, prototype and engineering development model components of torpedo systems.
Work will be performed in Manassas, VA (80%), and other locations including Newport, R.I. (20%), and is expected to be complete by January 2014. This contract was not competitively procured by the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division in Newport, RI (N66604-09-D-0002).
Oct 9/08: A $171.1 million modification to previously awarded contract (N00024-04-C-6101) to provide MK48 and MK54 torpedoes on a firm fixed-price basis, plus engineering and support. This is a continuation of MK48 ADCAP, MK48 CBASS and MK54 torpedo programs under contracts N00024-98-C-6107, N00024-00-C-6100, N00024-00-C-6102 and N00024-03-C-6104. The total amount funded at contract award will be $166.3 million, and contract funds in the amount of $48.9 million will expire at the end of the current fiscal year (Sept 30/09).
Raytheon’s subsequent release places the number at 192 MK54s, and 228 MK48 CBASS torpedo upgrade kits to the US Navy. Raytheon IDS will supply the Royal Australian Navy with 19 of the CBASS kits, and the Turkish Navy with 100 MK54 torpedo kits.
Work on the contracts will be performed at Raytheon’s Torpedo and Readiness Center, co-located with the U.S. Navy at NUWC Division Keyport, WA (50%), and at the Seapower Capability Center in Portsmouth, RI (50%). Work is expected to be complete by July 2011.
USA, Australia, Turkey
Aug 1/08: Contract conversion. A $6 million modification to previously awarded contract N00024-04-C-6101 to provide cost growth funding for the P2U NRE (Producibility 2nd Year Upgrade) completion efforts, and to convert the contract to Firm-Fixed Price (FFP) buys. This effort is a continuation of MK48 ADCAP, MK48 CBASS and MK54 torpedo programs under contracts N00024-98-C-6107, N00024-00-C-6100, N00024-00-C-6102 and N00024-03-C-6104. Work will be performed in Keyport, WA (50%) and Portsmouth, RI (50%), and is expected to be complete by September 2009.
July 28/08: A $12.3 million modification to previously awarded contract (N00024-04-C-6101) for production material in support of the FY 2007/2008 MK48/MK54 torpedo buy. This effort is a continuation of MK48 ADCAP, MK48 CBASS and MK54 torpedo programs under contracts N00024-98-C-6107, N00024-00-C-6100, N00024-00-C-6102 and N00024-03-C-6104. Work will be performed in Keyport, WA and is expected to be complete by September 2008.
FY 2004 – 2007
Dec 21/06: Support. Raytheon announces that Naval Sea Systems Command has awarded them a $12.5 million contract for technical engineering, repair and maintenance services in support of the MK48 Advanced Capability (ADCAP) heavyweight torpedo. This award is a contract modification exercising a one-year option that was included in the original technical services contract awarded in April 2006. Under the contract, IDS will perform intermediate-level maintenance, repair and refurbishment of MK48 ADCAP torpedoes currently in the U.S. Navy’s fleet inventory of training and warshot torpedoes. The inventory is used for fleet training, readiness and submarine-launched torpedo warshot exercises. Work on the contract will be performed in Pearl Harbor, HI; Yorktown, VA; and Poulsbo, WA.
Dec 7/06: Delivery. A NAVSEA announcement notes that the first Warshot MK 48 Mod 7 Advanced Capability (ADCAP) Common Broadband Advanced Sonar System (CBASS) Heavyweight Torpedoes were delivered to the Fleet and loaded aboard the Improved Los Angeles Class submarine USS Pasadena [SSN 752] in Pearl Harbor, HI. See NAVSEA release for further details.
MK48 MOD 7 delivery
Aug 1/06: Support. A $5 million firm-fixed-price modification to purchase additional spares, and issue a technical issue to support fleet operational requirements for the various torpedo product lines. This will satisfy additional fiscal year 2006 Navy and Royal Australian Navy requirements for MK48 advanced capability and MK54 Mod 6 lightweight torpedo spares and MK48 common broadband advanced sonar system Mod 7 heavyweight production engineering support. This modification combines requirements for the US Navy (99%) and the Royal Australian Navy (1%). Work will be performed in Keyport, WA (90%), and Portsmouth, RI (10%), and is expected to be complete by June 2009.
July 31/06: 107 MK48, 105 MK54. An estimated $95.4 million firm-fixed-price modification for the necessary quantities of Mk48 heavyweight torpedo and Mk 54 lightweight torpedo support services necessary to support fleet operational requirements. It represents the consolidated MK48 and MK54 torpedo kit hardware buy, with engineering and repair services. This contract combines support for the US Navy (70%) and the Government of Australia (30%) under the foreign military sales program. Work will be performed at Raytheon’s Torpedo and Readiness Center, co-located with the U.S. Navy at NUWC Division Keyport and at the Maritime Mission Center in Portsmouth, RI (10%) and in Keyport, WA (90%), and is expected to be complete by June 2009.
For the modifications announced on July 31/06 and Aug 1/06 under the consolidated torpedo contract, Raytheon will deliver electronic systems and components, spares and services for 105 MK-54 lightweight torpedoes and 107 MK-48 heavyweight torpedoes. They will also support the MK-48 upgrade and configuration to CBASS standard, which entered full-rate production in June 2006. The August 1,2006 contract also covers torpedo spares, production engineering and technical support for fleet operational requirements for the U.S. and Royal Australian Navy’s inventories.
These were described as “fiscal year 2006 procurement quantities,” indicating that this is the full order for the year.
Jan 11/05: FY 2005. A $78.7 million firm-fixed-price modification to previously awarded contract (N00024-04-C-6101) for fiscal year 2005 consolidated MK-48 and MK-54 torpedo hardware, and associated engineering and repair services.
Work will be performed in Keyport, WA (90%) and Portsmouth, RI (10%), and is expected to be completed by September 2007. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. This modification supports requirements for the U.S. Navy (90%) and Royal Australian Navy (10%), under the Foreign Military Sales program. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, D.C., is the contracting activity.
Oct 26/04: MK-54. Raytheon begins full rate production of the Mk54 lightweight torpedo. “Under the consolidated procurement contract for fiscal year 2004, Raytheon will deliver 51 MK54 lightweight torpedoes and associated whole-life support services. The five-year contract value, including exercised options, is expected to exceed $500 million.” See complete news release.
June 22/04: 101 MK48, 51 MK54. Raytheon Systems Co. Integrated Defense Systems in Keyport, WA received a firm-fixed price letter contract with a not to exceed value of $70.2 million for the consolidated procurement of FY 2004 undersea weapons requirements for 91 MK48 advanced capability (ADCAP) Mod 6 heavyweight torpedoes, including 15 kits in support of the next generation MK-48 CBASS Mod 7 initial production; production engineering for the MK48 Common Broadband Advanced Sonar System (CBASS) Mod 7 heavyweight (HWT); 51 MK54 Mod 6 lightweight (LWT) torpedoes; and associated support services.
This effort is a continuation of MK48 ADCAP, MK48 CBASS and MK54 torpedo for the primary purpose of purchasing the necessary quantities of torpedoes and support services necessary to support further operational evaluation, future milestone decisions, and initial operational capability for the various torpedo product lines. Work will be performed in Keyport, WA (90%) and Portsmouth, RI (10%), and is expected to be completed by June 2009. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. This contract was not competitively procured. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, D.C., is the contracting activity (N00024-04-C-6101).
See also Raytheon release, which adds 20 MK-48 ADCAP Mod6 kits for Australia to the above totals.
- Department Of The Navy Fiscal Year (FY) 2006/FY 2007 Budget Estimates (February 2005) – Justification Of Estimates: Weapons Procurement, Navy [PDF format]
- Jane’s – Background Information: Mk 48 ADCAP
- Lockheed Martin – Hitting the Mark with Upgraded CBASS
- GlobalSecurity.org – Mk-48 Torpedo
- Navysite.de – Mk-48 Torpedo
- Deagel – Mark 54
- Federation of American Scientists – MK-54 Lightweight Hybrid Torpedo
- Raytheon – Mark 46, Mark 48, Mark 50 Torpedoes. No, they don’t include their own Mk-54 on their site.
- Lockheed Martin – HAAWC. High-altitude GPS-guided kit.
- Raytheon – Fish Hawk. High-altitude GPS-guided kit.
- Eurotorp Consortium
- US Dept. of the Navy Acquisition One Source – Exchange of Non-Excess Property for New Assets in the MK46 and MK54 Torpedo Programs. Innovative idea.
- DID (May 31/07) – Longshot: A Swooping HAAWC for Torpedoes. Enables high-altitude launch, turning the Mk54 into a GPS-guided glide weapon that releases the torpedo near sea level.
- Australian Defence Materiel Organization (June 21/06) – JP 2070 ADF – Lightweight ASW Torpedo – Project Djimindi. Selected the MU90 Eurotorp. It hasn’t gone well.
- Spacewar (June 14/06) – Navy Selects LockMart For MK-54 Torpedoes High Altitude Launch Capability
- DID (Nov 15/05) – Australia’s Collins Class Subs, Submariners On Track for Upgrades. Mk-48 ADCAP torpedoes are part of those upgrades.
- Seapower Magazine (June 2005) – Boeing Eyes High-Flying Torpedo. For the P-8A MMA program. The 737-based P-8A is a capable aircraft, but doesn’t do as well as a turboprop when flying just 100 feet above the waves.
- Undersea Warfare Magazine (Winter/Spring 2002) – Torpedoes and the Next Generation of Undersea Weapons
- Thanks to reader Gregory L. Bender, P.E. of Defense Holdings, Inc. for catching an (incorrect) reference to the Mk48′s use on surface ships. At present, they use smaller Mk46 and Mk50 torpedoes.