Korea’s K21 KNIFV

February 26/17: L-3 Technologies has won a $17.3 million contract to provide South Korea with 800-horsepower transmission kits external link. The kits will power external link Seoul’s next-generation K21 infantry fighting vehicles external link as well as their fleet of light recovery vehicles. Designed by Hanwha Defense Systems to replace the current fleet of K200 armored transport vehicles, the K21 weighs 20% lighter than its predecessor and is armed with a 105mm turret weapon.

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Doosan K21 concept(click to view full) South Korea is steadily becoming a force to be reckoned with in the global defense market. Its world-leading shipyards are successfully building and and delivering vessels that include KDX-III AEGIS destroyers and Dokdo Class LHD amphibious assault ships. Its aerospace firms are beginning to see orders from the ROKAF and beyond for trainer (KT-1, T-50) aircraft, are partnering with Eurocopter to create a new medium helicopter (KHP), and will soon offer a compelling lightweight fighter (F/A-50). On land, the indigenous K1A1 tank was followed by the XK-2 “Black Panther,” which was exported to Turkey as the Altay. The K9/K10 mobile howitzer offering is expected to grab a significant chunk of that global market over the next decade. Now, a modern Infantry Fighting Vehicle looks set to round out those offerings. Doosan is a large Korean conglomerate, whose best known brand is probably Bobcat construction equipment. Other offerings range the gamut, including South Korea’s Kentucky Fried Chicken outlets, Doosan Feed agricultural supplies, franchised “Donga” private schools; and the new Doosan DST subsidiary, which manufactures the K21 KNIFV(Korea Next-generation Infantry Fighting Vehicle). October 2008 saw the first major order placed, and now the first deliveries have […]
K21 concept

Doosan K21 concept
(click to view full)

South Korea is steadily becoming a force to be reckoned with in the global defense market. Its world-leading shipyards are successfully building and and delivering vessels that include KDX-III AEGIS destroyers and Dokdo Class LHD amphibious assault ships. Its aerospace firms are beginning to see orders from the ROKAF and beyond for trainer (KT-1, T-50) aircraft, are partnering with Eurocopter to create a new medium helicopter (KHP), and will soon offer a compelling lightweight fighter (F/A-50). On land, the indigenous K1A1 tank was followed by the XK-2 “Black Panther,” which was exported to Turkey as the Altay. The K9/K10 mobile howitzer offering is expected to grab a significant chunk of that global market over the next decade. Now, a modern Infantry Fighting Vehicle looks set to round out those offerings.

Doosan is a large Korean conglomerate, whose best known brand is probably Bobcat construction equipment. Other offerings range the gamut, including South Korea’s Kentucky Fried Chicken outlets, Doosan Feed agricultural supplies, franchised “Donga” private schools; and the new Doosan DST subsidiary, which manufactures the K21 KNIFV(Korea Next-generation Infantry Fighting Vehicle). October 2008 saw the first major order placed, and now the first deliveries have taken place…

* K21 KNIFV: Characteristics
* K21 KNIFV: Contracts and Key Events
* Additional Readings

K21 KNIFV: Characteristics

M2 Urban Range

The competition: M2
(click to view full)

The K21 leans toward the light end of the IFV spectrum, at 26 tonnes (about 28.67 tons), thanks in part to a chassis that will reportedly be built out of fiberglass. In addition to weight savings, this may avoid some of the mine lethality problems experienced by vehicles that use aluminum, which quickly becomes molten and creates additional hazards. As a point of comparison, the Bradley M2A3 and its aluminum chassis weigh about 33.5 tons, before reactive armor tiles are added. Doosan states that the K21 can travel at speeds of up to 70 km/h (about 42 mph) on land and 7 km/h (about 4-5 mph) in water, about the same as BAE’s M2 Bradley.

It will carry a crew of 3, plus up to 9 troops.

The vehicle is expected to share some systems with its companion, the new K2 Black Panther tank. An improved version of the K21’s D2840LXE V-10 turbocharged diesel engine is expected to equip the K2, and the vehicles are expected to share a semi-active in-arm suspension. Other expected commonalities, aside from standardized C4I equipment like Korea’s chosen battle management system, include an “active defense” system against incoming rockets ad anti-armor missiles. An unspecified armoring system that is expected to use a layered composite made of multiple different materials, but little is known except the fact that Doosan’s goal was a vehicle that could match the survivability of America’s M2 Bradleys and Russia’s BMP-3s. The fuel tanks are reportedly soft and self-sealing, in order to help absorb the impact of a projectile or blast. Automatic fire suppressors and other standard equipment will also be fitted.

Armament will include a stabilized 40mm cannon and coaxial 7.62mm machine gun for fire-on-the-move accuracy, along with the ability to mount 2 anti-tank missiles in a side box launcher. Doosan, which also plans to make missiles, refers to a “third generation Korean-made tank-to-tank missile in the future, which will allow it to attack tanks and helicopters.” That armament will be controlled by a “hunter/killer” arrangement that uses independent sensors and sights for the commander and the gunner, similar to Germany’s Puma IFV and the M2A3/M3A3 Bradley.

Wikipedia reports the current estimated cost of the vehicle at approximately KRW 3.2 billion. Exchange rates fluctuate, but if true, and if that price remains stable, it would be about $2.3 million per vehicle at March 2009 rates.

The firm intends to seek exports around the globe, which means it will compete with BAE’s powerhouse M2/M3 Bradley and CV90 offerings, Russia’s BMP-3, Singapore’s Bionix, and to some extent with Germany’s Puma at the high end of the tracked IFV market. It will also compete indirectly with wheeled APC/IFV options like General Dynamics MOWAG’s Piranha/LAV family, General Dynamics Steyr’s Pandur II, Patria of Finland’s popular AMV, France’s VBCI, and the German-Dutch Boxer MRAV.

K21 KNIFV: Contracts and Key Events

K21 2007

K21 in Seoul, 2007
(click to view full)

February 26/17: L-3 Technologies has won a $17.3 million contract to provide South Korea with 800-horsepower transmission kits. The kits will power Seoul’s next-generation K21 infantry fighting vehicles as well as their fleet of light recovery vehicles. Designed by Hanwha Defense Systems to replace the current fleet of K200 armored transport vehicles, the K21 weighs 20% lighter than its predecessor and is armed with a 105mm turret weapon.

Nov 27/09: Doosan DST holds a ceremony at its Changwon Plant to mark the first shipment of K-21 infantry combat armed vehicles. The vehicles are scheduled to enter service by the end of 2009. Doosan DST CEO Um Hang-seok has high ambitions for the vehicle, and said in the release:

“We are very proud that the K-21 infantry armed vehicle, a state-of-the-art weapon that has been developed and produced exclusively by us, will take root as the mainstay of the Korean military’s combat capability. We will seek to export the K-21 to many countries around the world, and develop Doosan DST into a leading global defense supplier that is representative of Korea.”

March 23/09: Northrop Grumman’s LITEF navigation systems subsidiary in Freiburg, Germany announces a contract from Doosan DST Co., Ltd. to deliver LLN-G1 inertial navigation units for the K21 IFV.

LLN-G1 is a hybrid land navigation system based on state-of-the-art fiber optic gyros and LITEF’s micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer. Combining inertial sensors with an odometer and GPS data, the LLN-G1 provides accurate and unjammable three-dimensional position and attitude data for vehicle commanders and crews.

Jan 5/09: Doosan DST, which was established in December 2008, has its inaugural ceremony. The new spin-off, which is 100% owned by Doosan Infracore Co. Ltd., has been founded at a 200,000 square meter property in Seongju-dong, Changwon, Gyeongsangnam-do. The new firm has 650 employees, 100 billion won in paid-in capital, a 58% debt ratio, and 495.2 billion won in annual sales.

Doosan DST looks set to focus on combat vehicles, ground-to-air and guided weapons, and precision equipment. The firm intends to be an active exporter. Doosan release.

Nov 12/08: Doosan Infracore Co. Ltd. announces that it plans to split its defense business off into a separate company. The firm plans to finish the procedure of splitoff and incorporation registration, through the extraordinary general meeting of shareholders, by the end of 2008.

Oct 30/08: Doosan Infracore Co., Ltd. announces a 457.8 billion won ($327 million equivalent) contract with South Korea’s Defense Acquisition Program Administration, to supply the first batch of its K21 armored vehicles. Under the deal, the Company is set to begin deliveries in 2009.

Um Hang-seok, head of Doosan Infracore’s Defense Business Group, states the firm’s intentions:

“The K21 is far superior in performance to other equipment of its kind produced in advanced countries, and is competitive in terms of price. As such, we plan to actively seek its export to the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Latin America.”

2005: A total of 11 defense equipment suppliers in Korea, including the government’s Agency for Defense Development and Doosan Infracore, work to produce 3 XK21 prototypes early in the year. Source.

Additional Readings

* Doosan DST – K21 (Infantry Fighting Vehicle)

* Wikipedia – K21


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