Gulf States Requesting ABM-Capable SystemsDec 10, 2012 15:39 UTC by Defense Industry Daily staff
It’s becoming clear that Gulf states, including Saudi Arabia, have stepped up their defense spending in recent years. Uncertainty creates perceptions of risk, and perceptions of risk lead to responses aimed at reducing that risk. That’s why arms spending is an incomplete but very concrete way of tracking a state’s real assessment of threats and priorities. Iraq is no longer a missile/WMD threat, but Iran’s ballistic missiles are another matter. They may be based on North Korean designs that lack accuracy, but the prospect of nuclear payloads is producing reactions.
Gulf states recognize that even a lucky conventional missile could wreak havoc if it hit key oil-related infrastructure, or damaged the larger and more nebulous target of business confidence. The spread of nuclear weapons would change the calculus completely. A 2007 US National Intelligence Assessment [redacted NIE summary, PDF] believed that Iran’s nuclear program had stopped, but others, including the United Nations and Israel, were more skeptical. By 2010, that skepticism had spread to US intelligence, which repudiated an assessment that seems set to join the infamous 1962 NIE of no Soviet missiles in Cuba .
The Gulf states’ response to these developments covers a range of equipment, but anti-ballistic missile capabilities appear to be rising to the top of the priority list.
Contracts & Key Events
Note that US DSCA announcements do not denote a firm contract. They are official requests, which remain before Congress for 30 days. If no positive action to block the Foreign Military Sale is successfully taken in Congress by the end of that period, the sale may go through if a contract is negotiated.
PATRIOT encompasses both ground systems and missiles. The older PAC-2 missiles are much larger at only 4 to a launcher, and use a fragmentation warhead with proximity fuze. Guidance Enhanced Missile (GEM-T) variants use PAC-2 missiles, coupled with select PAC-3 electronics, in order to improve performance and provide compatibility with PAC-3 batteries.
PATRIOT Advanced Capability 3 (PAC-3) uses more advanced radar and electronics systems, coupled with a different, smaller missile that can be carried 16 to a launcher and uses “hit to kill” methods. The corresponding upgrades for the radar, command systems, etc. are referred to as “PATRIOT Config-3,” and such systems can fire both PAC-3 and upgraded PAC-2 missiles.
The longer-range Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system can work in centralized mode, in a decentralized group, or fully autonomous launcher mode. A THAAD battery will typically operate 3-6 Oshkosh M1075 HEMTT-ALS heavy trucks as launch vehicles, each carrying 8 missiles (TL 24-48), complete with an automatic Load Handling System that lifts the missile packs onto the truck. The rest of the system involves Raytheon’s AN/TPY-2 Ground-Based Radar (GBR) for long-range scans. The whole setup is run from 1 mobile Tactical Operations Center (TOC/TFFC) developed by Northrop Grumman and Raytheon; it’s currently mounted on reinforced Humvee ECVs with attached shelters.
Feb 19/13: DIAMOND Shield for UAE? Lockheed Martin beats ThalesRaytheon in a competition to build the UAE’s “Extended Air Defence Ground Environment-Transformation” national-level command and control system for ballistic missile defense. This isn’t a contract yet, but they are the preferred bidder. Lockheed Martin makes the UAE’s THAAD and PAC-3 missiles, and they also built the country’s F-16E/F fighters.
Negotiations will center around the firm’s “DIAMONDShield” offering, which builds on the firm’s experience with the USAF’s Integrated Space Command & Control (ISC2) system, and the US Missile Defense Agency’s C2BMC. Briefly, DIAMONDShield uses a map interface for command and control, overlaid with weapon and sensor data like UAV videos, datalink feeds, radar tracks, etc. Planning tools are included for airspace deconfliction, ISR missions, and battle plans, and the system is designed to tie into existing systems for execution and monitoring. Lockheed Martin ISGS VP Cliff Spier is quoted as saying that:
“The system is for advanced battle-space monitoring….. It integrates ground and air defences, selects the right weapons and…. offers the operator engagement tracking at the click of a button, so that his instructions are communicated direct by data link to a launcher…. A country needs its own air defence network. But Diamond Shield allows you to share your defence coverage with your neighbours and allies. What you are looking at, they can look at. It enables old systems and new systems to be integrated. Diamond Shield is an enabler for GCC integration.”
Note that integration and sharing aren’t simple, and usually require an investment of time and money. DIAMONDShield could become a base for GCC integration, but its mere presence won’t create it. What it does offer, is a service-oriented IT architecture that could work with others’ systems. UAE’s The National.
Nov 28/12: Saudi Arabia. The US DSCA announces [PDF] Saudi Arabia’s official request to buy technical services and re-certify up to 300 PATRIOT PAC-2 GEMs (MIM-104D Guidance Enhanced Missiles). They also want to perform some modernization of existing equipment, and receive spare and repair parts, support equipment, and other forms of US Government and contractor support. The estimated cost is up to $130 million.
The DSCA says that proposed recertification program will allow the Royal Saudi Air Defense Forces to extend the shelf life of the PAC-2 missiles for another 12 years. Raytheon Corporation in Andover, MA will be the prime contractor, but the US Army’s Letterkenny Army Depot in Chambersburg, PA will perform the recertification. Implementation of this proposed sale will require 1 Raytheon representative to travel to the Missile Assembly Disassembly Facility in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia on an extended basis for missile assembly/disassembly support, system checkout, training and technical and logistics support.
Saudis request PATRIOT PAC-2 re-cert
Nov 26/12: Saudi C4I. Raytheon announces a $600+ million contract to deliver a national-level Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C4I) system to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. That system can have a number of uses, but it’s especially critical for missile defense.
As things stand, its usefulness isn’t likely to extend beyond Saudi Arabia. So far, the Gulf Co-operation Council’s preferred approach involves individual nations buying modernized missile defense assets, rather than steps toward a truly regional system. Read “Saudi Arabia Orders $600M+ National Command System” for full coverage.
Nov 5/12: Qatar. The US DSCA announces [PDF] that Qatar wants to join its neighbor the UAE, and field 2 medium-range THAAD batteries of its own.
Their request is worth up to $6.5 billion, and includes up to 12 THAAD Launchers, 150 THAAD missiles, 2 THAAD Fire Control and Communications units, 2 AN/TPY-2 THAAD Radars, and 1 Early Warning Radar (EWR). The USA would also sell them the required trucks, generators, electrical power units, trailers, communications equipment, fire unit test & maintenance equipment, system integration and checkout, repair and return, training, and other support.
The principal contractor is Lockheed Martin Space Systems Corporation in Sunnyvale, CaA, and the sub-contractor is Raytheon Corporation in Andover, MA. Implementation of this proposed sale will require undetermined but periodic travel of up to 13 U.S. Government and contractor representatives for delivery, system checkout, and training.
Qatar requests THAAD
Nov 5/12: UAE. The US DSCA announces [PDF] the United Arab Emirates official request to expand its THAAD purchases. They’re interested in another 9 THAAD launchers and 48 missiles, plus the accompanying test components, repair and return, training, and support.
The estimated cost is up to $1.135 billion, and the principal contractors would be Lockheed Martin Space Systems Corporation in Sunnyvale, CA and Raytheon Corporation in Andover, MA. Raytheon is an odd mention, since the DSCA request doesn’t include another AN/TPY-2 radar. There are no known offset agreements proposed in connection with this potential sale, and implementation won’t require the assignment of any additional U.S. Government or contractor representatives to the UAE.
UAE requests more THAAD
July 25/12: Kuwait. The US DSCA announces [PDF] Kuwait’s official request to add to its PATRIOT assets. The request begins by ordering 60 more PAC-3 missiles, which are already in Kuwait’s inventory. See the Dec 4/07 request, which included 80 PAC-3 missiles (tl. 140 requested). Kuwait has also added a stock of GEM-T missiles, vid. Dec 11/10 and Jan 24/11 entries.
This request will also add ground equipment for 2 more fully modern batteries, plus additional equipment to extend existing infrastructure: 4 PATRIOT radars, 4 PATRIOT Engagement Control Stations, 20 PATRIOT Launching Stations, 2 Information Coordination Centrals, 10 Electric Power Plants, communication and power equipment. The Dec 4/07 request has already ordered Config-3 upgrades to 6 radars and associated equipment.
Personnel training and training equipment, spare and repair parts, facility design and construction, and other forms of U.S. Government and contractor support round out the possible order. The estimated cost is up to $4.2 billion, and the principal contractors will be Raytheon Corporation in Tewksbury, MA and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control in Dallas, TX. Implementation of this proposed sale will require the assignment of 3 contractor representatives to Kuwait on a temporary basis for program, technical support, and management oversight.
Kuwait requests more PATRIOTs
April 2/12: UAE Patriot. Raytheon IDS in Andover, MA receives a $67.5 million firm-fixed-price contract for UAE Patriot spares. Work will be performed in Andover, MA, with an estimated completion date of Sept 30/13. One bid was solicited, with one bid received by U.S. Army Contracting Command in Redstone Arsenal, AL (W31P4Q-09-G-0002).
March 28/12: Gulf-wide BMD? Turkey’s Hurriyet Daily News reports that EPAA could soon have other regional counterparts:
“The US seeks to expand its missile systems to Asia and the Middle East by building regional shields against ballistic missiles, similar to the NATO shield already in Europe. A senior Pentagon official says the Obama administration will hold talks with South Korea, Japan, Australia and Gulf Cooperation Council countries.”
A GCC/US regional shield could actually be even stronger than EPAA, since the GCC states have a larger quantity of more advanced missile defense systems in place, or on order, than European countries do. Even command and control might not be a weakness, given the UAE’s forward-thinking investments in that area.
Dec 30/11: UAE THAAD. A series of contracts kick off the UAE’s THAAD deal (q.v. Sept 9/08 entry), which is estimated at $3.48 billion. It’s the 1st export sale for the THAAD system.
Lockheed Martin Space Systems Co. in Sunnyvale, CA receives a sole-source letter contract at a total not-to-exceed price of $1.96 billion to supply the United Arab Emirates with 2 full THAAD Systems, and provide support services. Work will be managed in Sunnyvale, CA, with final assembly performed in Troy, AL. Performance extends from Dec 30/11 through June 30/16. The US Missile Defense Agency in Huntsville, AL manages the contract, on behalf of its FMS client.
Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems in Woburn, MA receives a sole-source letter contract, with a not-to-exceed value of $582.5 million, as an undefinitized contract action (UCA) to provide 2 AN/TPY-2 radars, spares, and training services to the United Arab Emirates. Work will be performed in Woburn, MA, and the period of performance is Dec 30/11 through Sept 30/18. This contract will be finalized in June 2012. The US Missile Defense Agency in Huntsville, AL manages the contract, on behalf of its FMS client (HQ0147-12-C-0005). See also Lockheed Martin | Raytheon | Bloomberg | AP | Reuters | Voice of America.
Dec 23/11: Saudi PATRIOT. The US DSCA announces [PDF] Saudi Arabia’s official request to buy continuing services for the PATRIOT Systems Engineering Services Program (ESP). Also included: modification kits, engineering changes, spare and repair parts, support and test equipment, publications and technical documentation, personnel training and training equipment, and other forms of US Government and contractor support. The estimated cost is up to $120 million, but no duration is specified.
Saudi Arabia has had a Shared Engineering Services Program (SESP) with the USA for the past 20 years; this just extends it. The prime contractor will be Raytheon Integrated Defense in Andover, MA, and implementation won’t require the assignment of any additional U.S. Government or contractor representatives to Saudi Arabia, beyond those already there.
Saudi PATRIOT maintenance request
Nov 30/11: Raytheon announces U.S. Congressional and State Department approvals for Saudi Arabia’s $1.7 billion Direct Commercial Sales contract for Patriot system upgrades (vid. June 21/11 entry).
June 21/11: Saudi PATRIOT Upgrade. Raytheon announces a $1.7 billion contract to upgrade Saudi Arabia’s MIM-104 PAC-2 Patriot batteries to PAC-3 status. The Direct Commercial Sale (DCS) includes ground-system hardware, a full training package and support equipment upgrades. Note that PAC-3 hit-to-kill missiles are made by Lockheed Martin, and improved Raytheon PAC-2 GEM-T missiles can be part of a PAC-3 system. Reports thus far have been silent on the Saudis’ chosen missile path.
Because the Saudis chose a DCS contract, instead of a Foreign Military Sale contract process, they will manage it themselves. Subject to customary U.S. DCS regulatory approvals, work under this contract will be performed by Raytheon at the Integrated Air Defense Center in Andover, MA and in Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Arabia’s air defense network relies on MIM-23 I-Hawk and MIM-104 Patriot PAC-2 batteries, concentrated around key sites within the kingdom. Since their initial 1990, Patriot order, they are believed to have received 21 Patriot batteries, and to field 11 operational batteries at 15 prepared, hardened sites. They are joined by 10 operational I-Hawk batteries; advanced MIM-23K/J Hawk variants have some ballistic missile defense capability, but all Hawk missiles have shorter ranges than Patriot, and the exact variant fielded by Saudi Arabia is not certain. Raytheon | Saudi Arabia’s Arab News | US-Saudi Arabian Business Council | IMINT on the Saudi SAM Network.
Saudi PATRIOT upgrades
June 3/11: UAE PATRIOT. Lockheed Martin Corp. in Grand Prairie, TX receives a $17.6 million firm-fixed-price and cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for the integration support of Post Deployment Build-7 software in the UAE’s PAC-3 Ground System Engagement Control System. AN/MSQ-104 ECSs act as a PAC-3 battery’s command center, and is generally pulled by a 5-ton FMTV or similar truck.
Work will be performed in Grand Prairie, TX, and White Sands Missile Range, NM, with an estimated completion date of May 31/14. One bid was solicited, with one bid received by the U.S. Army Contracting Command at Redstone Arsenal, AL (W31P4Q-07-G-0001).
Feb 21/11: UAE. UAE’s The National reports on Raytheon’s industrial offset commitments, which are attached to the UAE’s 2008 Patriot missile buy (vid. Dec 17/08 entry). The firm is waiting for the UAE’s Offset Program Bureau to approve 2 new facilities:
- A joint venture with Abu Dhabi Ship Building to build an intermediate level maintenance facility for missiles used by the UAE Navy, incl. Raytheon’s RIM-116 RAM and RIM-162 ESSM ship defense missiles
- A 3 way joint-partnership with Lockheed Martin and Emirates Advanced Investment’s Global Aerospace Logistics, to build a consolidated maintenance facility for Patriot missiles. Since The UAE ordered both PAC-2 GEM and PAC-3 missiles, both Lockheed and Raytheon need to participate.
The Patriot facility has the potential to become a regional hub, expediting repair and return of Patriot components to Arab middle eastern customers.
Feb 20/11: UAE. Reuters quotes Lockheed Martin VP of International Air & Missile Defence Strategic Initiatives Dennis Cavin, who says that “We are very close to finalising documentation necessary to have a successful [THAAD contract] for the UAE. This spring, the U.S. government will make an announcement…”
That announcement is expected to be a government-to-government deal worth up to $7 billion [vid. Sept 9/08 entry], making the UAE THAAD’s 1st export customer. The US government is expected to send a letter of agreement in the next few months, after which the UAE could start negotiations with contractors on production schedules, and support agreements with Lockheed and Raytheon.
Feb 1/11: UAE PATRIOT. Lockheed Martin Corp. in Grand Prairie, TX receives an $18.1 million cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for PAC-3 software modernization development on behalf of the United Arab Emirates. Work will be performed in Grand Prairie, TX, with an estimated completion date of Aug 31/13 (W31P4Q-07-G-0001).
Jan 24/11: Kuwait PATRIOT. Raytheon announces a $145 million production contract from Kuwait, for Patriot GEM-T missiles. The new missiles will work with Kuwait’s upgraded Configuration-3 radar systems, and that upgrade work is already underway at Raytheon. See also Aug 11/10 entry.
Kuwait PATRIOT GEM-T
Sept 13/10: UAE PATRIOT. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control in Dallas & Grand Prairie, TX received a $7.8 million firm-fixed-fee and cost-plus-fixed fee contract for PAC-3 FY 2010 subset efforts to include the following: United States enhanced launcher electronics system kit cables; Taiwan control interface circuit card assembly redesign; Taiwan power and control circuit card assembly redesign; Taiwan missile test set; Taiwan portable four-pack test set; Taiwan seeker digital processor parts; United Arab Emirates (UAE) portable 4-pack test set; UAE guidance processor unit redesign – tooling and test equipment.
The estimated completion date is Oct 31/12, with work to be performed at Dallas, TX (95.74%), Camden, AZ (0.25%), and Ocala, FL (4.01%). One bid was solicited and one bid received (W31P4Q-10-C-0002).
Aug 11/10: Kuwait PATRIOT. The US Defense Security Cooperation Agency announces [PDF] Kuwait’s formal request to buy 209 MIM-104E PATRIOT GEM-T Missiles, for an estimated cost of up to $900 million.
The GEM-T missiles use the PAC-2 missile body and configuration, but have warhead and guidance upgrades that make them more effective against ballistic missiles. The prime contractor will be Raytheon Corporation in Tewksbury, MA. See also Arabian Aerospace.
Kuwait PATRIOT GEM-T missile request
June 1/10: Kuwait PATRIOT. Raytheon Co. in Andover, MA receives a $21.3 million firm-fixed-price contract, covering spares for Taiwan’s PAC-3 configuration upgrade, and for Kuwait’s Patriot radar upgrade.
Work will be performed in Andover, MA, with an estimated completion date of June 30/13. One bid was solicited with one bid received (W31P4Q-09-G-0002).
April 9/10: UAE PATRIOT Trucks. Raytheon Co. in Andover, MA received a $16.7 million firm-fixed-price contract for Kuwait Patriot Radar upgrade spares, including fabrication, production, testing, and delivery. Work is to be performed in Andover, MA, with an estimated completion date of Aug 31/12. One bid was solicited with one bid received by the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command at Redstone Arsenal, AL (W31P4Q-09-G-0002).
March 18/10: Oshkosh Defense announces an $11.4 million delivery order for “more than 40″ next-generation HEMTT A4 heavy trucks to the United Arab Emirates. The HEMTT variants included in this contract are the PATRIOT tractor, wrecker and guided missile transporter. The vehicles will be built and delivered July through September 2011, and the order was issued under the US Army’s Family of Heavy Tactical Vehicles (FHTV-III) contract to take advantage of volume pricing.
Feb 24/10: UAE Hawk. Raytheon Southeast Asia Systems Co. in Andover, MA receives a $6.9 million firm-fixed-price contract for technical assistance for the United Arab Emirates for the Hawk program. The Hawk air defense missile is the Patriot’s predecessor, and is in current use by the UAE. It is not generally thought of as BMD-capable. On the other hand, the system demonstrated in 1988 that with software modifications, it could receive Patriot missile data, and conduct successful ballistic missile intercepts. Further improvements were made in 1992 and 1994.
Work is to be performed in the United Arab Emirates, with an estimated completion date of February 2012. One bid was solicited with one bid received. U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command, Army Contracting Command, Redstone Arsenal, AL is the contracting activity (W31P4Q-10-C-0177).
Jan 26/10: UAE PATRIOT. Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control in Grand Prairie, TX a $44.9 million firm-fixed-price and cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for 16 PAC-3 launcher modification kits, and 16 PAC-3 motor control units, from the UAE. Work is to be performed in Dallas, TX (82.8%), Camden, AR (0.2%), Lufkin, TX (10.9%), Ocala, FL (6.1%). One bid was solicited with one bid received by U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command in Redstone Arsenal, AL (W31P4Q-09-C-0002).
Jan 11/10: Kuwait ABM Test. Raytheon announces that Kuwait’s Air Defense Forces have successfully test fired a PAC-2 guidance system with PAC-2 GEM-T missiles against tactical ballistic missiles.
The test firings were held in December 2009 during a joint exercise, at the Udairi Range in Kuwait. The Patriot system successfully engaged and destroyed 2 Patriot-as-a-Target missiles, as well as 3 foreign Multiple Launch Rocket System-type targets that were also emulating tactical ballistic missiles.
Kuwait ABM test
Nov 16/09: Kuwait PATRIOT. The USA’s Defense Security Cooperation Agency announces [PDF] Kuwait’s official request to purchase 4 years of Patriot sustainment, including repair/return programs, associated spare parts, modification kits, equipment, Liaison Office Support Services, and US government and contractor support worth approximately $410 million.
The principal contractor will be Raytheon Corporation in Tewksbury, MA. There are no known offset agreements proposed in connection with this potential sale.
Kuwait PATRIOT support request
June 29/09: Kuwait PATRIOT. Raytheon announces a $36.1 million Foreign Military Sales award to provide Kuwait with PAC-3 radar upgrade depot test equipment, training, and related technical services. Work under this contract will be done at 3 Raytheon centers in Massachusetts – Raytheon IDS headquarters in Tewksbury, the Integrated Air Defense Center in Andover, and the Surveillance and Sensors Center in Sudbury; as well as at the Seapower Capability Center in Portsmouth, RI.
This depot test equipment contract complements a $148 million June 27/08 Raytheon order, to upgrade Kuwait’s Patriot ground systems to Configuration-3. The June 2008 order covers the upgrades, while the June 2009 order adds the equipment and services needed to maintain the upgraded equipment. Together, they amount to $184.1 million.
April 29/09: UAE PATRIOT. Raytheon names Roket Sanayii ve Ticaret A.S (Roketsan) of Ankara, Turkey as the sub-contractor who will integrate and test the control actuation system for the UAE’s Patriot GEM-T missiles. Roketsan will work with subcontractors throughout Turkey and the United States, coordinating and perform the major assembly work at its Ankara facility. The Raytheon release adds that:
“Roketsan is Raytheon’s first major trans-Atlantic supplier strategically located to support the 11 countries in Europe and Asia, including several in the Middle East, that have chosen Patriot as a key component of their air and missile defense programs.”
March 2/09: Kuwait PATRIOT. A $71.6 firm-fixed-price Letter Contract Modification contract to buy, install, and test 6 Radar Enhancement Phase 3 and Classification, Discrimination, and Identification Phase 3 modification kits for Kuwait’s Patriot radars.
Work is to be performed at Andover, MA, with an estimated completion date of Oct 30/12. One bid was solicited and one bid received by the Aviation and Missile Command Contracting Center at Army Contracting Command, Redstone Arsenal, AL (W31P4Q-07-C-0151). See also Dec 4/07 entry.
Kuwait PATRIOT upgrades
Feb 9/09: UAE PATRIOT. Raytheon announces a $246 million Foreign Military Sales contract from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), for Patriot system spares. The firm fixed price contract that is initially funded at $123 million, which represents the first delivery order awarded under a 5-year agreement for Patriot system spares. See Dec 17/08 for the main contract.
Work will be performed by Raytheon’s Integrated Defense Systems at its headquarters in Tewksbury, MA; its Integrated Air Defense Center in Andover, MA; the Surveillance and Sensors Center in Sudbury, MA; and the Seapower Capability Center in Portsmouth, RI. The contract will be managed by the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, AL.
UAE PATRIOT spares
Jan 14/09: UAE. The Khaleej Times quotes General (Ret.) Khaled Abdulla Al Bu-Ainnain, the former commander of the UAE air force and now President of The Institute for Near East and Gulf Military Analysis (INEGMA) defense think tank:
“This in no way means that all these countries [in the emerging nuclear arc] are hostile to the UAE. But we cannot be blind to the risks and threats involved in these countries arming with nuclear capabilities. We may even become victims of cross-fires between different countries. Suppose Israel or the US attacks Iran, we could be caught in between. Our rulers have been acutely sensitive to these realities and are in the process building up a robust air defence system for the Emirates… It is the ‘system of systems’ involving early detection, separation, elimination and the complete command control… We had the potential to buy these missiles ten years ago. But we wanted to develop the human resources from within the UAE so that our people will be put in command. We want to defend the country through our own people, and not through outsiders.”
This would also help to explain the developments reported in “UAE Looking to Become a Regional C2 Leader.” The Khaleej Times report adds:
“Meanwhile, Federal National Council Member Ahmed Shabib Al Dhahiri told Khaleej Times on Tuesday that an estimated $100 million budget has been earmarked for UAE Nuclear Authority, which will implement the country’s peaceful nuclear programme.”
As the Times reported, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Algeria, and Morocco all confirmed their intent to begin nuclear power programs to the IAEA in 2006; the UAE and Tunisia were listed as possible additions. This announcement would appear to make the UAE program a certainty.
2007 – 2008
Dec 17/08: UAE PATRIOT. Raytheon receives a not-to-exceed $3.3 billion order from the United Arab Emirates for Patriot Config-3 systems, including Patriot GEM-T and Lockheed PAC-3 missiles, whole life support, and training.
Raytheon and teammate Lockheed Martin have worked with the U.S. and UAE governments during the past year to develop this agreement. The initial request was for up to 9 full fire units, with a stated maximum value of $9 billion. See the Dec 4/07 entry, and the Sept 9/08 Patriot order, for more background.
Raytheon established its first office in the UAE in 1983, and began delivery and support of the medium range Hawk Air Defense System to the UAE in 1987. The Hawk has also been upgraded to have limited ABM capabilities, but the addition of Patriot 3 systems represents a major advance in capability for the UAE. Raytheon multimedia release.
Sept 9/08: UAE THAAD. The US Defense Security Cooperation Agency announces [PDF] the United Arab Emirates’ request for 3 THAAD fire units with 147 anti-ballistic missiles, 4 radar sets (3 tactical and one maintenance float), 6 fire and control communication stations, and 9 launchers. This would represent the first foreign sale of the THAAD system.
The UAE is also requesting fire unit maintenance equipment, the heavy trucks that carry the THAAD components, generators, electrical power units, trailers, communications equipment, tools, test and maintenance equipment, repair and return, system integration and checkout, spare/repair parts, publications, documentation, personnel training, training equipment, contractor technical and logistics personnel services, and other related support elements. The estimated cost is $6.95 billion.
The principal contractor is Lockheed Martin Space Systems Corporation in Sunnyvale, CA (THAAD), and the sub-contractor is Raytheon Corporation in Andover, MA (radar).
The UAE will be requesting industrial offsets, which will be negotiated with these contractors. On the other hand, the UAE “does not desire a government support presence in its country on an extended basis.” A total of 66 contractor logistic support personnel could be stationed in United Arab Emirates for extended periods, and additional training and major defense equipment personnel may be in the United Arab Emirates for short periods of time, not to exceed 24 months.
UAE THAAD request
Sept 9/08: UAE PATRIOT. The US Defense Security Cooperation Agency announces [PDF] the United Arab Emirates’ official request for 4 Patriot PAC-3 missiles with containers, 19 MIM-104D Patriot Guided Enhanced Missiles-T (GEM-T) missiles with containers, 5 Anti-Tactical Missiles, and 5 Patriot Digital Missiles. These missiles are for lot validation and testing of the PAC-3 missiles notified for sale in the $9 billion Dec 4/07 request noted below, which would equip 9 full fire units.
The estimated cost of this sale is $121 million, as it also includes AN/GRC-245 Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio Systems (SINCGARS Export), Power generation equipment, an Electric power plant, Trailers, Communication and support equipment, plus other related elements of support.
The principal contractors are the Raytheon Corporation in Andover, MA; and Lockheed-Martin in Dallas, TX (PAC-3 missiles). The purchaser intends to request industrial offsets, but these will be negotiated with each contractor. An in-country field office will likely be manned by 1-4 U.S. Government personnel who will remain in country for an undetermined length of time, and 65 contractor personnel are expected to be in country for an extended period for training purposes.
Sept 9/08: UAE GBAD. The UAE also submits DSCA requests for several hundred [PDF] Surface-Launched AMRAAM missiles, and 78 complete AVENGER fire units which offer a mounted, networked platform and radar set that can accommodate very-short range Stinger missiles and .50 caliber machine guns. The SL-AMRAAM order provides all the equipment needed to mount the missiles in static positions, or on existing vehicles.
These systems are not capable of missile defense, but their presence will help the UAE’s PATRIOT and THAAD systems concentrate on that role.
Sept 8/08: UAE. Reuters reports that the UAE is about to make an official request for THAAD theater-level ABM interceptors, and associated systems. If the request goes through, the sale could be worth up to $7 billion.
June 27/08: Kuwaiti PATRIOT. Raytheon Integrated Defense in Andover, MA receives a $76.5 million firm fixed price / cost-plus-fixed-fee, level of effort contract to upgrade 6 Patriot Radar Sets to PAC-3-Kuwait configuration. Work will be performed at Andover, MA with an expected completion date of July 31/13. One bid was solicited with 1 bid received (W31P4Q-07-C-0151).
Raytheon’s July 15/08 release refers to it as a $156 million contract, which indicates that the DefenseLINK announcement covered the 50% initial payment, with the rest to follow. It also notes that the Kuwaiti upgrades are very similar to the upgrades the US Army is implementing under its “Pure Fleet” initiative. A 2009 release later reports the value of this contract as $148 million.
Kuwait PATRIOT ground systems upgrades
Dec 4/07: Kuwaiti PATRIOT PAC-3s? Kuwait already deploys Patriot PAC-2 missiles, alongside MBDA’s less capable Spada medium-range air defense system. The Spadas received a March 2007 contract for upgrades to Spada 20000 status, which will improve their effectiveness against aircraft and cruise missiles but will not give them anti ballistic missile capabilities. The PAC-2 has some ABM capability to go with its excellent capabilities against aircraft and cruise missiles, but it has limitations.
All that will change if the DSCA’s announced request [PDF] from Kuwait’s goes through:
- 80 PAC-3 Missiles
- Patriot GEM-T Modification Kits to upgrade 60 PAC-2 missiles
- 6 Patriot System Configuration 3 Modification kits to upgrade PATRIOT Radars to REP III
- Plus communication support equipment, tools and test equipment, system integration and checkout, installation, personnel training, containers, spare and repair parts, publications and technical data, U.S. Government and contractor technical and logistics personnel services, and other related elements of program support.
The estimated cost is $1.363 billion, and the prime contractor will be the Raytheon Corporation of Andover, MA. This is somewhat expensive, given the scale of the activities requested. One clue may be found later in the request, which hints that extensive support and maintenance work is part of this contract: “upon implementation of this proposed sale, two U.S. Government representatives and 25 contractor personnel will be assigned to Kuwait for a period of 3-5 years.” The DSCA adds that:
“The proposed sale and upgrade will bring Kuwait’s assets in line with U.S. PATRIOT assets, and ensure Kuwait maintains the ability to protect its borders. Kuwait needs this Air Defense System to develop an organic capability that will be responsive to hostile aircraft or missile threats upon its sovereign territory. The PATRIOT Air Defense System will go far in improving a current operational deficiency revealed during the Gulf War.”
PAC-3 systems and GEM upgrades have been available for some time since that period, of course, but it has risen to the top of the priority list now.
Kuwait PATRIOT upgrade request
Dec 4/07: UAE Patriots? The United Arab Emirates, which includes Dubai, currently depends on Improved Hawk missiles, plus Croatale (older version, not NG) and Rapier missile systems for short-range air defense (SHORAD), and Sweden’s RBS-70 man-portable, laser-guided VSHORAD. This system offers good point coverage against cruise missiles and aircraft, and their 50 Russian Pantsyr-S1 missile/gun systems with revised and improved radars promise further improvements.
The Pantsyrs should be arriving by now, and full deployment is expected by 2009; they will likely replace the Croatale and/or Rapier batteries. Now the DSCA announces [PDF] the United Arab Emirates’ official request for a high-end complement that adds ABM capabilities as well as improved air defense:
- 288 PATRIOT Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) missiles
- 216 Guidance Enhanced Missiles-T (GEM-T)
- 9 PATRIOT Fire Units that includes:
- 10 phased array radar sets
- 10 Engagement Control Stations on trailers
- 37 Launching Stations (4 per fire unit)
- 8 Antenna Mast Groups (AMG) on trailers
- 8 Antenna Mast Group (AMG) Antennas for Tower Mounts
- AN/GRC-245 Radios
- Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio Systems (SINCGARS, Export)
- Multifunctional Information Distribution System/Low Volume Terminals (Link 16)
- Plus trailers, generators, electrical power units, communication and support equipment, publications, spare and repair parts, repair and return, United States Government and contractor technical assistance and other related elements of logistics support.
The estimated cost is $9 billion, and the principal contractors will be Raytheon Corporation of Andover, MA, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control in Dallas, TX. The purchaser intends to request offsets, but agreements are undetermined and will be defined in negotiations between the purchaser and contractor.
The Patriot is a new defensive system for the UAE, and implementation of this proposed sale will require the assignment of U.S. Government or contractor representatives to United Arab Emirates. An in-country field office will likely be manned by 1-4 U.S. Government personnel who will remain in country for “an undetermined length of time.” A total of 26 contractor personnel are also expected to be in-country for “an extended period” to provide training.
UAE PATRIOT request
Oct 30/07: Saudi BMD? “Saudis May Go Russian As France Loses Out” includes rumors that Saudi Arabia’s Russian military purchases may soon add S-300 and S-400 long-range surface-air missile systems with anti ballistic missile capabilities. The previous odds-on favorite was MBDA’s Aster 30 SAMP/T, which also has ABM capabilities but sports a shorter range.
Oct 16/07: Bahrain radar. The AN/TPS-59 is a theater defense class radar with a full 360 degree azimuth scan over a 740 km/ 400 nautical mile range results in a surveillance volume of 603 million km3. It has been used in tests to track and shoot down ballistic missiles, as well as conventional aircraft. See “Bahrain Receives TPS-59 Missile Defense Radar” for background re: the recent fulfillment of this 2004 contract.
Bahrain BMD radar
End Notes & Additional Readings
1. Angelo Codevilla, Informing Statecraft: Intelligence for a New Century, pp. 201-203. Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada (C) 1992. [return]
- DID – UAE Looking to Become a Regional C2 Leader. Of course, excellent command, control, and communications is the foundation of any effective air and missile defense capability.
- DID (Nov 28/12) – Saudi Arabia Orders $600M+ National Command System. About 5 years behind the UAE. Also looks at the potential of regional C4I systems.
- Federation of American Scientists Space Policy Project – Estimated Surface-To-Air Missile Inventories
- Anthony Cordesman – The Military Balance in the Middle East (Google book preview)
- IMINT (Dec 19/10) – The Saudi Arabian SAM Network